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What Causes Lower Back Pain?

Andrew Bellingham

Andrew Bellingham

Pharmacist | 20+ Years | BPharm | Dip Clin Pharm

Lower back pain is a common problem that can affect anyone, at any age. It can be uncomfortable, disruptive, and sometimes even debilitating. Understanding the potential causes of back pain is the first step in finding relief and preventing it from coming back.

Muscle or Ligament Strain

Your lower back muscles and ligaments are like hard-working ropes and bands that support your spine and help you move. However, just like any other part of your body, they can get strained or injured.

What Causes Strain:

Strain in these muscles and ligaments often happens when you push them too hard or too suddenly. This can occur due to various reasons, such as:

  • Heavy Lifting: Trying to lift something too heavy can strain your back muscles. It’s crucial to use proper lifting techniques to avoid this.

  • Sudden Movements: Abrupt movements, like twisting or bending quickly, can also lead to muscle or ligament strain. These movements can happen during everyday activities or sports.

  • Overexertion: Sometimes, spending too much time doing physically demanding tasks, like gardening or moving furniture, can strain your lower back muscles.

How It Feels:

When you strain these muscles or ligaments, as well as pain you might feel:

  • Stiffness: Your lower back may feel tight and less flexible than usual.

  • Muscle Spasms: You might experience involuntary muscle contractions or spasms.

Herniated or Bulging Discs

Imagine the discs inside your spine as soft cushions between the hard bones (vertebrae). These discs serve as shock absorbers and allow your spine to be flexible. However, sometimes, these discs can develop problems, leading to pain and discomfort.

What Causes Disc Issues:
Disc problems, such as herniation or bulging, typically occur due to wear and tear over time or sudden injuries. Here’s how it happens:

  • Degeneration: As you age, the discs can naturally degenerate, losing their flexibility and making them more susceptible to issues.
  • Injury: An injury or trauma, like a fall or car accident, can also damage these discs, causing them to herniate or bulge.

How It Feels:

When a disc in your spine herniates or bulges, you may experience:

  • Pain: The most common symptom is pain in your lower back, though the pain can also radiate into your buttocks, thighs, or even down your legs if the affected disc compresses nearby nerves.
  • Numbness or Tingling: You might feel numbness, tingling, or weakness in the areas served by the affected nerves.

Structural and Degenerative Factors

The structure of your spine plays a crucial role in its overall health, and certain factors related to its structure and degeneration can lead to lower back pain.


Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint condition that can affect any joint in the body, including the spine. Osteoarthritis in the lower back typically involves the facet joints, which are the small joints connecting the vertebrae. Here’s how it can lead to lower back pain:

  • Joint Wear and Tear: Over time, the cartilage cushioning these joints can wear down, leading to friction between the bones and causing pain.

  • Bone Spurs: As a response to the degeneration, the body may develop bone spurs, which can further irritate nearby nerves.

How It Feels:
When osteoarthritis affects the lower back, you may experience:

  • Dull, Aching Pain: This persistent, dull ache can worsen with activity.

  • Stiffness: Your lower back may feel stiff, making it challenging to bend or move comfortably.

  • Reduced Range of Motion: Osteoarthritis can limit your ability to twist or turn your torso.


Scoliosis is a condition characterised by an abnormal sideways curvature of the spine. While it often develops during childhood or adolescence, it can also occur in adulthood and causes various issues, including lower back pain:

  • Muscle Imbalances: The muscles supporting the spine may become imbalanced, leading to pain and discomfort.

  • Nerve Compression: In severe cases, the abnormal curvature can compress nerves, causing radiating pain.

How It Feels:
When scoliosis contributes to lower back pain, you may experience:

  • Asymmetry: Your shoulders, hips, or waist may appear uneven.

  • Muscle Fatigue: Muscles on one side of your back may feel more fatigued than the other.

  • Discomfort: You might feel persistent discomfort or occasional sharp pains in your lower back.

Nerve-Related Causes: Sciatica

The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in your body, running from your lower back down each leg. When this nerve becomes irritated or compressed, it can lead to a condition known as sciatica.

How It Feels:

If you suffer from sciatica, you may feel:

  • Radiating Pain: The most distinctive symptom is pain that radiates from your lower back down one leg. This can be sharp, shooting, or burning.

  • Numbness and Tingling: You might feel numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected leg.

  • Difficulty Sitting or Standing: Pain often worsens when sitting or standing for extended periods.

Other Causes: Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are solid mineral deposits that form in your kidneys and can obstruct the flow of urine, causing pressure and pain in the lower back as the kidneys try to expel them.

How It Feels:

  • Sudden, Intense Pain: Kidney stone pain is often described as excruciating and can come on suddenly.

  • Flank Pain: The pain typically starts in the side or lower back and can radiate to the abdomen and groin.

  • Nausea and Vomiting: Kidney stone pain can be so severe that it triggers nausea and vomiting.

  • Blood in Urine: In some cases, there may be visible blood in the urine.

Differentiating Kidney Stone Pain:

It’s essential to distinguish kidney stone pain from other lower back pain causes, as the treatment approach may vary. The sudden onset of severe pain, often accompanied by other symptoms, can be indicative of kidney stones.

Prevention and Lifestyle Considerations

Lower back pain prevention and management often involve making lifestyle choices and adopting practices that promote spinal health and overall well-being. 

Maintaining Proper Posture:

Maintaining good posture is fundamental in preventing lower back pain. When you sit, stand, and walk with proper alignment, you reduce the stress on your back muscles and spine.

  • Sitting: Sit with your back straight and supported by the chair, keeping your feet flat on the floor. Use a cushion if necessary to support the lower back’s natural curve.

  • Standing: When standing, distribute your body weight evenly on both feet, with your shoulders relaxed and your chin parallel to the ground.

  • Lifting: When lifting objects, bend your knees, not your back, and keep the object close to your body. Avoid twisting while lifting.

Ergonomics in Daily Life:

Ergonomics involves designing your workspace and daily activities to minimise strain on your body. Proper ergonomics can significantly reduce the risk of lower back pain, especially if you have a desk job or spend extended hours sitting.

  • Chair and Desk: Choose an adjustable chair with lumbar support and ensure your desk is at a comfortable height.

  • Computer Setup: Position your computer monitor at eye level, and use a keyboard and mouse that allow your arms to rest comfortably.

  • Breaks: Take regular breaks to stand, stretch, and move around if you have a sedentary job.

Exercise and Flexibility:

Regular exercise, especially exercises that strengthen the core muscles and improve flexibility, can go a long way in preventing lower back pain. Strong muscles support the spine and reduce the risk of injury.

  • Core Strengthening: Exercises like planks, bridges, and yoga can help strengthen the muscles that support your lower back.

  • Stretching: Gentle stretching can improve flexibility and reduce muscle tension. Focus on hamstring, hip flexor, and lower back stretches.

Weight Management:

Maintaining a healthy weight is essential for lower back pain prevention. Excess weight, especially around the abdomen, can strain the lower back muscles and increase the risk of disc problems.

Stop Smoking:

As well as being a significant cause of cancer and other health defects, smoking can have detrimental effects on your spine. It reduces blood flow to the discs in your spine, leading to decreased nutrient supply and increased risk of disc degeneration.

Order Your Back Pain Medicine Online with Healthera

If you’ve been prescribed medication, like codeine, by your GP to treat your lower back pain, you can place your order online with Healthera. 

It only takes a few minutes to set up your prescription for collection or home delivery from your local pharmacy. 

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